Black people earn less than their white colleagues at all levels of education, according to new research by the Trades Union Congress (TUC).
The TUC said analysis of data on salaries showed that there is a 23% gap between the average pay of similarly qualified white and black workers. The research shows that the gap is wider the more educated workers are.
Of those educated to GCSE level, white workers earn an average 11% more than black colleagues. At A-Level, it widens to 14%. The gap for university graduates is 18%, with the average white worker earning £18.63 per hour and black workers earning £14.33.
TUC general secretary Frances O'Grady called on the government to do more to close the gap.
She said: "Race still plays a huge role in determining pay.
"The harsh reality is that at any level of education, black and Asian workers are getting paid less than their white counterparts.
"The government cannot afford to ignore these figures and must now take genuine action to tackle pay discrimination."
In its report, the TUC said: "This suggests that education alone will do little to address racial inequalities, and the need for interventions that directly challenge racial inequalities in the workplace."
On Sunday, Prime Minister David Cameron announced that universities would be forced to disclose the proportion of ethnic minority student studying at their institution. He said transparency would encourage universities to diversify its students.